By: Jean-Jacques Rousseau Considered to mark the emergence of a new literary form, the unvarnished autobiography, Confessions by Jean-Jacques Rousseau was first published in , four years after his death. Confessions, volumes 3 and 4.
Confessions, volumes 5 and 6. Wikipedia — Confessions. Wikipedia — Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Reviewer: Stan - September 4, Subject: Spooky Reader This reader was so slow, over-pronouncing every single word, he sounded like a spook from beyond the grave. He might be good reading ghost stories. The Roman Catechism used in II, v, 13 says: "These actions are called by the Council quasi materia not because they have not the nature of true matter , but because they are not the sort of matter which is employed externally as water in baptism and chrism in confirmation ".
For the theological discussion see Palmieri , op. Regarding the form of the sacrament , both the Council of Florence and the Council of Trent teach that it consists in the words of absolution. Effect "The effect of this sacrament is deliverance from sin " Council of Florence. The same definition in somewhat different terms is given by the Council of Trent Sess. This reconciliation implies first of all that the guilt of sin is remitted, and consequently also the eternal punishment due to mortal sin. As the Council of Trent declares, penance requires the performance of satisfaction "not indeed for the eternal penalty which is remitted together with the guilt either by the sacrament or by the desire of receiving the sacrament , but for the temporal penalty which, as the Scriptures teach, is not always forgiven entirely as it is in baptism " Sess.
VI, c. In other words baptism frees the soul not only from all sin but also from all indebtedness to Divine justice , whereas after the reception of absolution in penance, there may and usually does remain some temporal debt to be discharged by works of satisfaction see below. Thus, an act of contrition suffices to obtain forgiveness of venial sin , and the same effect is produced by the worthy reception of sacraments other than penance, e.
The reconciliation of the sinner with God has as a further consequence the revival of those merits which he had obtained before committing grievous sin. Good works performed in the state of grace deserve a reward from God , but this is forfeited by mortal sin , so that if the sinner should die unforgiven his good deeds avail him nothing. So long as he remains in sin , he is incapable of meriting : even works which are good in themselves are, in his case, worthless: they cannot revive, because they never were alive. But once his sin is cancelled by penance, he regains not only the state of grace but also the entire store of merit which had, before his sin , been placed to his credit.
On this point theologians are practically unanimous: the only hindrance to obtaining reward is sin , and when this is removed, the former title, so to speak, is revalidated. On the other hand, if there were no such revalidation, the loss of merit once acquired would be equivalent to an eternal punishment, which is incompatible with the forgiveness effected by penance.
Thomas v. Aquin u. Bussakramentes", Freiburg, The minister i.
That this power does not belong to the laity is evident from the Bull of Martin V "Inter cunctas" which among other questions to be answered by the followers of Wyclif and Huss , has this: "whether he believes that the Christian. Luther's proposition, that "any Christian , even a woman or a child" could in the absence of a priest absolve as well as pope or bishop , was condemned by Leo X in the Bull "Exurge Domine" Enchir.
The Catholic doctrine , therefore, is that only bishops and priests can exercise the power. These decrees moreover put an end, practically, to the usage, which had sprung up and lasted for some time in the Middle Ages , of confessing to a layman in case of necessity. In the work "On true penance and false" De vera et falsa poenitentia , erroneously ascribed to St. Augustine, the counsel is given: "So great is the power of confession that if a priest be not at hand, let him the person desiring to confess confess to his neighbour. Lea, who cites I, the assertion of the Pseudo-Augustine about confession to one's neighbour , passes over the explanation.
He consequently sets in a wrong light a series of incidents illustrating the practice and gives but an imperfect idea of the theological discussion which it aroused. Thomas IV Sent. Alexander of Hales Summa, Q. Bonaventure "Opera', VII, p. Pourcain IV Sent. Confessor , I, 1 that if absolution is given by a layman , the confession must be repeated whenever possible; this in fact was the general opinion. It is not then surprising that Dominicus Soto , writing in , should find it difficult to believe that such a custom ever existed: "since in confession to a layman there was no sacrament.
Since, therefore, the weight of theological opinion gradually turned against the practice and since the practice never received the sanction of the Church , it cannot be urged as a proof that the power to forgive sins belonged at any time to the laity. What the practice does show is that both people and theologians realized keenly the obligation of confessing their sins not to God alone but to some human listener, even though the latter possessed no power to absolve.
The same exaggerated notion appears in the practice of confessing to the deacons in case of necessity. They were naturally preferred to laymen when no priest was accessible because in virtue of their office they administered Holy Communion. Moreover, some of the earlier councils Elvira , A. The Council of Tribur declared in regard to bandits that if, when captured or wounded they confessed to a priest or a deacon , they should not be denied communion; and this expression "presbytero vel diacono" was incorporated in the Decree of Gratian and in many later documents from the tenth century to the thirteenth.
The Council of York decreed that except in the gravest necessity the deacon should not baptize , give communion, or "impose penance on one who confessed". Substantially the same enactments are found in the Councils of London and Rouen , the constitutions of St. All these enactments, though stringent enough as regards ordinary circumstances, make exception for urgent necessity. No such exception is allowed in the decree of the Synod of Poitiers : "desiring to root out an erroneous abuse which has grown up in our diocese through dangerous ignorance , we forbid deacons to hear confessions or to give absolution in the tribunal of penance: for it is certain and beyond doubt that they cannot absolve , since they have not the keys which are conferred only in the priestly order".
This "abuse" probably disappeared in the fourteenth or fifteenth century; at all events no direct mention is made of it by the Council of Trent , though the reservation to bishops and priests of the absolving power shows plainly that the Council excluded deacons.
The authorization which the medieval councils gave the deacon in case of necessity did not confer the power to forgive sins. In other enactments he is forbidden except in cases of necessity to "give" or "impose penance", poenitentiam dare, imponere.
chalegectairia.cf: Private Confessions Volume 1 eBook: Kimberly Llewellyn, Kathy Carmichael: Kindle Store. chalegectairia.cf: Private Confessions, Volume 1 (Audible Audio Edition): Kimberly Llewellyn, Kathy Carmichael, Nellie Barnett: Audible Audiobooks.
His function then was limited to the forum externum ; in the absence of a priest he could "reconcile" the sinner, i. Another explanation emphasizes the fact that the deacon could faithfully administer the Holy Eucharist. The faithful were under a strict obligation to receive Communion at the approach of death, and on the other hand the reception of this sacrament sufficed to blot out even mortal sin provided the communicant had the requisite dispositions.
The deacon could hear their confession simply to assure himself that they were properly disposed, but not for the purpose of giving them absolution. In any case, the prohibitory enactments which finally abolished the practice did not deprive the deacon of a power which was his by virtue of his office; but they brought into clearer light the traditional belief that only bishops and priests can administer the Sacrament of Penance. See below under Confession. For valid administration, a twofold power is necessary : the power of order and the power of jurisdiction.
At his ordination a priest receives the power to consecrate the Holy Eucharist , and for valid consecration he needs no jurisdiction.
As regards penance, the case is different: "because the nature and character of a judgment requires that sentence be pronounced only on those who are subjects of the judge the Church of God has always held, and this Council affirms it to be most true , that the absolution which a priest pronounces upon one over whom he has not either ordinary or delegated jurisdiction , is of no effect" Council of Trent, Sess.
Ordinary jurisdiction is that which one has by reason of his office as involving the care of souls ; the pope has it over the whole Church , the bishop within his diocese , the pastor within his parish. Delegated jurisdiction is that which is granted by an ecclesiastical superior to one who does not possess it by virtue of his office.
Hence it is that a priest visiting in a diocese other than his own cannot hear confession without special authorization from the bishop. Every priest , however, can absolve anyone who is at the point of death, because under those circumstances the Church gives all priests jurisdiction. Recipient i.
Hence, no unbaptized person , however deep and sincere his sorrow, can be validly absolved. Baptism , in other words, is the first essential requisite on the part of the penitent. This does not imply that in the sins committed by an unbaptized person there is a special enormity or any other element that places them beyond the power of the keys ; but that one must first be a member of the Church before he can submit himself and his sins to the judicial process of sacramental Penance.
Contrition and attrition Without sorrow for sin there is no forgiveness. Hence the Council of Trent Sess. The Council ibid. See also treatises by Pesch , Palmieri , Pohle.
It was only in that he returned to Cambridge to resume his philosophical vocation, after having been exposed to discussions on the philosophy of mathematics and science with members of the Vienna Circle, whose conception of logical empiricism was indebted to his Tractatus account of logic as tautologous, and his philosophy as concerned with logical syntax. Another explanation emphasizes the fact that the deacon could faithfully administer the Holy Eucharist. Just the normal, healing the soul kind of romance. Lee ed. This will be indeed remedied for the future, with respect to claims of peerage, by a late standing order h of the house of lords; directing the heralds to take exact accounts, and preserve regular entries, of all peers and peeresses of England, and their respective descendants; and that an exact pedigree of each peer and his family shall, on the day of his first admission, be delivered to the house by garter the principal king-at-arms. The court of admiralty is held before the lord high admiral of England, or his deputy, who is called the judge of the court.
For the present purpose it need only be stated that attrition , with the Sacrament of Penance, suffices to obtain forgiveness of sin. The Council of Trent further teaches ibid. In accordance with this teaching Pius V condemned the proposition of Baius asserting that even perfect contrition does not, except in case of necessity or of martyrdom , remit sin without the actual reception of the sacrament Denzinger-Bannwart , "Enchir.
It should be noted, however, that the contrition of which the Council speaks is perfect in the sense that it includes the desire votum to receive the sacrament. Whoever in fact repents of his sin out of love for God must be willing to comply with the Divine ordinance regarding penance, i. But it does not follow that the penitent is at liberty to choose between two modes of obtaining forgiveness, one by an act of contrition independently of the sacrament , the other by confession and absolution.
This view was put forward by Peter Martinez de Osma in the proposition: "mortal sins as regards their guilt and their punishment in the other world, are blotted out by contrition alone without any reference to the keys "; and the proposition was condemned by Sixtus IV in Denzinger-Bannwart , "Enchir. Hence it is clear that not even heartfelt sorrow based on the highest motives, can, in the present order of salvation , dispense with the power of the keys , i. Confession necessity "For those who after baptism have fallen into sin , the Sacrament of Penance is as necessary unto salvation as is baptism itself for those who have not yet been regenerated " Council of Trent , Sess.
Penance, therefore, is not an institution the use of which was left to the option of each sinner so that he might, if he preferred, hold aloof from the Church and secure forgiveness by some other means, e. As already stated, the power granted by Christ to the Apostles is twofold, to forgive and to retain, in such a way that what they forgive God forgives and what they retain God retains. But this grant would be nullified if, in case the Church retained the sins of penitent, he could, as it were, take appeal to God's tribunal and obtain pardon.
Nor would the power to retain have any meaning if the sinner, passing over the Church , went in the first instance to God , since by the very terms of the grant, God retains sin once committed so long as it is not remitted by the Church. It would indeed have been strangely inconsistent if Christ in conferring this twofold power on the Apostles had intended to provide some other means of forgiveness such as confessing "to God alone".